Volume 84 Edition 4

Volume 84 Edition 4 | Autumn 2019

Psychological Empowerment and Employee Outcomes in Mexico: The Role of Individual Power Distance Orientation and Perceived Organizational Support

T. T. Selvarajan, Barjinder Singh, and Ritu Tripathi

Psychological empowerment has been extensively researched in the European and North American contexts; however, the topic has received scant attention in the Latin American context, such as Mexico. Using a field-based survey of matched pairs of employees and their managers in a manufacturing plant (N=156), we test a model of psychological empowerment and employee outcomes in the Mexico. We propose that perceived organizational support is positively related to psychological empowerment, which in turn, is positively related to employee outcomes, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviors, and in-role behaviors. Further, we examine individual-level power distance as a moderator of these relationships, such that the positive effects of empowerment on individual outcomes are more favorable for employees with low power distance orientation. Moderated-mediated regression analyses with bootstrapping procedures, provide support for most of the hypotheses and offer implications for theory and practice in a global context.

Servant Leadership in Times of Crisis: Southeastern Virginia Police Chiefs Respond

Shannon O. Jackson and Pamela Chandler Lee

Law enforcement agencies across the country are struggling to recruit and retain police officers while attempting to counter negative public perceptions about their work. To investigate the influence of leadership behaviors in response to this crisis, we conducted an exploratory study by surveying the Chiefs of the largest police departments in Virginia, and asked if servant leadership is effective in a crisis. Spears’ (2010) ten characteristics of servant leadership were used for this analysis of the Chiefs’ survey responses. These characteristics are: listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of people, and building community. The exemplar case methodology, which relies on participants who demonstrate particular characteristics “more consistently and more intensely” (Bronk, 2012, p. 1) than other individuals, provided the framework for this analysis. Nine of the ten servant leadership characteristics were supported; only conceptualization was not revealed in the Chiefs’ responses. This exploratory study augments empirical research investigating the influence of servant leadership behaviors in the workforce. Results show how servant leaders demonstrate and encourage listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, foresight, stewardship, personal development and community in times of crisis.

Mentoring: A Key Success Factor for African American Women in the U.S. Federal Senior Executive Service

Lynda C. Jackson and Marcia M. Bouchard

Of more than 6,500 U.S. Federal Senior Executive Service (SES) members, less than four percent are African American Women (AAW) (Stalcup, 2008a). The literature suggests that the career success factors needed to achieve executive positions include mentors (i.e. Ragins, 1989; Ragins, 1996, Catalyst, 2004). The authors of this study identify how AAW, in General Schedule and SES position, perceived success factors and their importance to progressing to executive positions. This research involved a quantitative study of 188 participants actively serving in the Federal Government. Findings suggest that mentors were perceived as necessary factors for career advancement; however, participants also perceived that internal factors, such as education and hard work, were more important. Benefits of this study include increasing minority women’s awareness of the importance and positive influence of mentoring on career advancement. The study also provides tools for managers to enhance inclusive employee development policies and programs.

Strategies for Implementing Strategies

Robert Ford, Greg Marshall, and Rich Ungaro

The purpose of this article is to present options for managers to consider who seek to execute a strategy. In addition, we offer seven steps to implement whatever strategy best fits the circumstances of the changes required to successfully execute that strategy. While there are many books and articles on how to plan a strategy, the literature providing guidance on execution or implementation of a strategy is surprisingly limited. Yet, every manager knows that it doesn’t matter how elegant the plan is if it can’t be implemented. Since execution of strategy inevitably involves change then having strategies for managing the change process is a key to successful strategy implementation. Here we present optional change strategies that offer different ways to successfully execute a strategy. These can be used individually or in combination as part of the overall implementation plan to yield the changes required to successfully execute a strategic plan. These execution strategies all focus on overcoming resistance to the changes that implementing a new strategic plan creates and build on the belief that those who help plan the battle seldom battle the plan. Finally, we offer seven steps to guide a manager in successfully managing the implementation process.

Board of Director Independence, CEO Duality, and Corporate Political Activity

Andrew Johnson

Corporate political activity (CPA) is an increasingly important nonmarket strategy for firms. Engaging with the government can bring about firm level benefits as a result of investment in activities such as lobbying and political contributions. This manuscript examines the roles of board of director independence and CEO duality in the firm’s pursuit of political gain.